Retinal Conditions

Retinal Conditions

Retinal diseases and disorders can severely harm your vision. Learn more about retinal conditions, causes, symptoms, risks, and treatment. If youhave any symptoms of a retinal condition, it’s important that you immediately contact a physician.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (Wet)

Age-related macular degeneration is a gradual deterioration of the light sensitive tissue responsible for clear, detailed vision. The wet form of this disease makes it difficult to see fine details and makes vision appear blurry. This form of the disease is more serious and causes rapid, severe vision loss if left untreated.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (Dry)

Age-related macular degeneration is a gradual deterioration of the light sensitive tissue responsible for clear, detailed vision. The dry form of this disease gradually makes it more difficult to see fine details with vision become blurred. Untreated, blind spots and a loss of central vision may occur.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a disease that commonly affects people with diabetes and tends to occur in both eyes. This causes varying degrees of painless vision loss or leads to blindness without warning. Untreated diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in Canada.

Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO)

Branch retinal vein occlusion is a blockage of the veins that carry blood away from the retina. This blockage causes sudden, painless vision loss. If untreated, this vision loss becomes permanent including blindness in the affected eye.

Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO)

Central retinal vein occlusion is a blockage of the vein that carries blood to the retina. This blockage causes vision to become distorted and blurry. In severe cases, the build-up of pressure will cause severe vision loss and pain. Untreated, this condition results in permanent vision loss or blindness.

Retinal Tear

A retinal tear is when the retina is pulled away and separated from the outer layer of the eye. This can progress to more serious retinal conditions, such as retinal detachment.

Retinal Detachment

Retinal detachment is when the retina is separated from its normal position at the back of the eye. This separation prevents the retina from functioning properly and causes severe damage to vision.

Vitreous Hemorrhage

A vitreous haemorrhage is when a blood vessel nearby or within the vitreous cavity of the eye ruptures and begins to leak fluid or bleed. Vitreous hemorrhage can result from a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Macular Hole

A macular hole is a small break in the macula that disrupts vision by causing blind spots to appear. If left untreated, macular holes slowly grow in size causing further vision loss and increasing the risk of other serious retinal conditions.


Uveitis is an inflammation within one or both eyes that causes discomfort, pain, and a decrease in vision. Uveitis may be linked to a wide range of serious health concerns and if left untreated, can lead to permanent loss of vision.


A choroidal nevus is a small growth, similar to a freckle or a mole, beneath the retina in the back of the eye. While usually harmless, a choroidal nevus may be a warning sign of cancer or cause other retinal conditions.

Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm

A retinal arterial macroaneurysm is when blood pools around the retinal artery. Depending on the location of the aneurysm and whether it has already ruptured, this may cause decreased central vision.

Epiretinal Membrane (ERM)

An epiretinal membrane is a thin layer of scar tissue that can form over top of the eye’s macula that causes varying degrees of distortion to the central field of vision.

Macular Edema

Macular edema is a swelling of the macula caused by damaged blood vessels leaking into the retina. As these fluids accumulate in the macula, it obscures light from passing through and results in a loss of central vision. In severe cases, macular edema can result in blindness.

Retinal Artery Occlusion (RAO)

Retinal artery occlusion is blockage of one of the arteries that supplies blood and oxygen to the retina. These blockages are usually caused by a blood clot becoming stuck in the artery. Retinal artery occlusion causes a sudden, severe loss of eyesight and is considered a medical emergency.

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSCR)

Central serous chorioretinopathyis a build-up of fluids underneath the retina that leads to the formation of a blister beneath the macula. This causes vision to become distorted and blurred.

Vitreomacular Traction (VMT)

Vitreomacular traction is when the vitreous fluid that fills the interior of the eye pulls on the surface of the macula causing swelling which distorts the central field of vision, leading to blurred vision, the formation of blind spots, and distortion.